What is typhoid fever?
Typhoid fever is an infection that is caused by the bacteria Salmonella typhi. It is common in developing countries with poor sanitation and low standards of hygiene.
How is it transmitted?
Typhoid is most often transmitted by eating food or drinking water that has been contaminated with the feces of an infected person. Examples include:
Eating food or drinking beverages that have been handled by a person who is infected.
Drinking water that has been contaminated with sewage.
Eating shellfish taken from sewage-polluted areas, or eating raw fruits and vegetables which may have been fertilized with human waste.
What are the symptoms?
Symptoms usually appear 1 to 3 weeks after being infected.
Some people develop no symptoms, while others may develop symptoms such as fever, headache, constipation or diarrhea, fatigue and loss of appetite.
In more severe cases, symptoms may worsen and cause life threatening complications such as enlargement of the liver and spleen or intestinal bleeding.
Where is Typhoid a concern?
The highest risk for typhoid fever among travellers is in South Asia although other areas of risk include Africa, Asia, the Caribbean, Central and South America
Source: © All Rights Reserved. Travel Health: Typhoid. Public Health Agency of Canada, 2014. Reproduced with permission from the Minister of Health, 2014.